Academic Policies and Procedures
The following pages contain academic regulations and other information of interest to all students pursuing an undergraduate degree at Binghamton University. In addition to the all-University regulations discussed here, regulations specifically pertaining to the various schools at the University appear in the school sections later in both the Catalog and Bulletin. All students are expected to be familiar with the regulations in this section and in the section for the school in which they are enrolled, and are responsible for their observance. For interpretations of these regulations or for answers to questions about specific points of academic policy, students should consult the academic advising office of the college or school in which they are enrolled.
Students whose circumstances or aspirations are not covered by standard academic policies, or who wish to request exceptions to standard policies, may seek a waiver by filing a petition in the academic advising office of the college or school in which they are enrolled. If the initial petition is not resolved to their satisfaction, they may appeal according to guidelines available in each dean’s office. To aid students with their appeals, the Student Association provides an ombudsperson.
Binghamton University has had a General Education program for all undergraduate students since 1996. The State University of New York Board of Trustees, in December 1998, adopted Resolution 98-241 establishing a General Education Requirement for all baccalaureate degree candidates at SUNY’s state-operated campuses. As a condition of graduation, baccalaureate students entering the State University of New York in 2000 or later are required to complete a General Education program of no fewer than 30 credit hours specifically designed to achieve learning outcomes in 10 knowledge and skill areas: Mathematics; Natural Sciences; Social Sciences; American History; Western Civilization; Other World Civilizations; Humanities; The Arts; Foreign Language; and Basic Communication, and two competencies: Critical Thinking (Reasoning) and Information Management.
Undergraduate General Education Program
Convinced that there are several areas of knowledge and experience that ought to be central to the academic experience of every undergraduate student, Binghamton University has adopted a comprehensive General Education curriculum. This curriculum has broad goals. It is intended to help students develop:
- an appreciation of and capacity for effective personal expression;
- knowledge about various intellectual traditions;
- an understanding of and respect for different peoples and civilizations;
- knowledge of and appreciation for the natural world,
achieved through active engagement with the methods and philosophy of
- logical thinking, balanced skepticism, and tolerance for
ambiguity and uncertainty;
- a knowledge of and appreciation for the arts and creative expression.
To achieve these objectives, the faculty of Binghamton University requires students to take courses in the following broad areas of learning:
Category 1: Language and Communication
Composition (C) courses are courses in any of the departments or divisions of the University. They require a process of revision and a minimum of 20 pages of expository prose. Students will perform the basic operations of personal computer use; understand and use basic research techniques; and locate, evaluate and synthesize information from a variety of sources. At least 50 percent of the course grade is based on student writing.
Oral Communication (O) courses involve at least two oral presentations and evaluation of speaking that count for at least 15 percent of the final course grade.
The language of communication for fulfilling both the C and O requirement shall be English.
Note: Composition and Oral Communication components may be combined to create Joint (J) courses.
Foreign Language skills are ensured by requiring that students pass either a third-semester college-level course in one foreign language or a second-semester course in two foreign languages, or satisfactorily complete some other significant activity that requires second-level foreign language proficiency as a prerequisite, such as study abroad in a non-English environment or an internship serving people who can communicate only in a language other than English. Students may fulfill the foreign language requirement prior to enrolling in college either by completing four or more units of one high school foreign language with a course grade in the fourth year of 85 or better, or three units each of two high school languages with course grades in each third unit of 85 or better, by passing the AP examination (or its equivalent) with a score of 3 or better, or by demonstrating equivalent proficiency in some other fashion.
Category 2: Creating a Global Vision
The complexity of the modern world demands that students attain a heightened awareness both of the plurality of cultures that have contributed to the making of the United States and of the interdependence of the cultures of the world.
Pluralism in the United States (P) courses consider three or more cultural groups in the United States in terms of their specific experiences and how they have affected and been affected by the basic institutions of American society. Each course takes substantial account of at least three of the following: African Americans, Asian Americans, European Americans, Latino Americans and Native Americans.
Most P courses assume a basic knowledge of United States history, as measured by demonstrating a level of proficiency equivalent to a score of 85 or above on the Regents examination on United States History and Government. Students who have not demonstrated this knowledge must meet the P requirement by choosing from among a designated group of P courses that pay significant attention to a broad span of United States history.
Global Interdependencies (G) courses consider how one or more of the regions of the world have influenced and interacted with the West and with one another, and how the West has affected and been affected by these regions and their distinctive cultures or civilizations. Additionally, major portions of the course content focus both on broad, foundational aspects of the long-term development of distinctive features of Western civilization in Europe and North America and on the distinctive features of one or more non-Western civilizations, such as those of Asia, Africa or the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Category 3: Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and Mathematics
Students must have an understanding of the methods of investigation typical of the natural and social sciences and must be able to make individual observations and quantitative measurements in a hands-on environment in the natural sciences. In order to have the experience of discovery through the use of logic and reasoning, students also need to study mathematical methods and reasoning.
Laboratory Science (L) courses emphasize the formulation and testing of hypotheses and the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Each course includes a minimum of 10 laboratory meetings, exercises, field studies or practica.
Social Science (N) courses emphasize the major concepts, models and issues of at least one of the social sciences.
On 12/6/05, Binghamton University's Faculty Senate approved the following change to the General Education "Mathematics/Reasoning" (M) requirement. This change was made retroactive to so that it applies to all students subject to the General Education requirements in the 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 Catalogs who have not yet satisfied the "M" requirement.
"Mathematics/Reasoning (M) courses include any course in the Mathematics Department numbered 130 or above, any of several designated statistics courses, or any of several designated logic courses. An Advanced Placement score of 3 or better in Calculus or Statistics may be used to satisfy this requirement."
Mathematics/Reasoning (M) courses include
any course in the Mathematics Department numbered 130 or above, any of several
designated statistics courses, PHIL 121, 122 or 200, or any course in the
Computer Science Department numbered 120 or above (except CS 205). Advanced
Placement credit may be used to satisfy this requirement. M courses assume a basic knowledge of high school
mathematics as measured by demonstrating a level of proficiency equivalent to
passing Mathematics Course B (algebra, geometry, trigonometry) with a score of
85 or above on the corresponding Regents examination. Students who have not
demonstrated such proficiency either by test scores or by passing calculus must
pass MATH 107 or 108 in addition to one of the above-listed courses.
Category 4: Aesthetics and Humanities
By taking courses in this area, students gain an expanded sense and understanding of culture and a greater appreciation of human experience and its expressions.
Aesthetics (A) courses enhance students’ understanding of the creative process and the role of imagination in it. Students study or practice artistic expression and production in such fields as art, art history, cinema, creative writing, dance, graphic design, music and theater.
Humanities (H) courses enhance students’ understanding of human experience through the study of literature or philosophy.
Category 5: Physical Activity/Wellness
Exercise, body awareness and wellness are essential components of a healthy and productive lifestyle. The dictum we follow is “a sound mind in a sound body.”
Physical Activity (Y) courses devote at least 50 percent of their time to the performance of physical exercise designed to develop one or more of the following attributes: neuromuscular skill, muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility.
Wellness (S) courses deal with such topics as diet and nutrition, physical development, substance abuse, human sexuality, relaxation or physical, mental and emotional fitness. Their focus is on developing a healthy lifestyle rather than on simply providing information about the human body.
The Physical Activity/Wellness requirement may be fulfilled in any of the following ways:
• Completion of a one-credit (or more) Physical Activity course and a one-credit (or more) Wellness course.
• Completion of a one-credit Physical Activity/Wellness course and one of the following:
— one-credit Physical Activity course;
— one-credit Wellness course;
— one-credit Physical Activity/Wellness course.
• Completion of a two-credit (or more) course that combines a physical activity and wellness.
Note: Physical Activity and Wellness components may be combined to create Physical Activity/Wellness (B) courses.
Restrictions and Exceptions
• Students may use appropriate transfer credits to satisfy particular course requirements. The determination of which transfer credits satisfy General Education requirements will be the responsibility of the evaluator of transfer credit in each of the undergraduate schools.
• General Education courses may also be counted as satisfying college and major requirements.
• Certain courses are designated as meeting the criteria for more than one of the General Education categories. When a course is so designated, students may use it to satisfy only one of the General Education course requirements. There is an exception to this rule: Composition (C), Oral Communication (O) and Joint (J) courses may satisfy either one or both of these requirements and also satisfy one other General Education requirement.
• General Education courses may not be taken Pass/Fail unless that is the mandatory grade option in the course.
• Appropriate Advanced Placement credits, in some instances, may be used to satisfy the following General Education requirements: Aesthetics, Foreign Language, Humanities, Laboratory Science, Mathematics/Reasoning or Social Science.
• The Foreign Language requirement is waived for students in the Watson School engineering programs.
The Foreign Language requirement for students in the Decker School of Nursing and the Watson School computer science program is fulfilled by one college course in foreign language at any level. This requirement may also be fulfilled in high school by demonstrating a level of proficiency equivalent to passing the corresponding Regents foreign language examination with a score of 85 or higher.
The Foreign Language requirement for transfer students in any school is fulfilled by one college course in foreign language at any level. This requirement may also be fulfilled in high school by demonstrating a level of proficiency equivalent to passing the corresponding Regents foreign language examination with a score of 85 or higher.
• For all General Education requirements, a “course” is understood to be four credits. There are exceptions to this rule:
— transfer courses that earned three credits at the student’s original school;
— Physical Activity/Wellness courses (the specific credit-hour criteria for these courses are defined above);
— Laboratory Science courses of one and two credits that have a four-credit pre- or corequisite;
— Oral Communication courses of varying credits;
— schools or programs in which three-credit courses are the norm.
Summary of General Education Requirements
Courses that satisfy General Education requirements are so designated in the Schedule of Classes each semester. The code letter attached to a course in the Schedule of Classes means that the course fulfills the particular General Education requirement that follows. (See preceding “Restrictions and Exceptions” for explanation of variability in credits.)
Oral Communication (O)*
Pluralism in the U.S. (P)
Global Interdependencies (G)
Laboratory Science (L)
Social Science (N)
Physical Activity (Y), Wellness (S),
Physical Activity/Wellness (B)
* Joint Oral Communication/Composition (J) courses satisfy both the C and O requirements simultaneously.
Determination of Graduation Requirements
Graduation requirements for the undergraduate schools on the Binghamton campus are listed in the individual school sections of both the Catalog and Bulletin. In general, matriculated students follow the requirements for graduation listed in the Catalog/Bulletin current at the time they are admitted. However, students who interrupt enrollment for three or more consecutive semesters (not counting summer sessions) are governed by the Catalog/Bulletin in effect when they are readmitted. Exceptions are made for students eligible to continue at Binghamton who are forced to leave because of involuntary recall to military service.
With the departmental adviser’s consent and approval from their college or school’s academic advising office, students may elect a later Catalog/Bulletin under which to fulfill the degree requirements; they may not elect an earlier Catalog/Bulletin, nor use a combination of requirements from different Catalogs/Bulletins.
No Catalog/Bulletin more than 10 years old may be used under any circumstances. Should a student maintain continuous enrollment under a Catalog/Bulletin older than 10 years, the Catalog/Bulletin under which degree requirements are to be completed is determined by the advising office of the college or school in which he or she is enrolled, in consultation with the student’s departmental adviser.
Previously non-matriculated students who then matriculate are governed by the requirements of the Catalog/Bulletin in effect at the time of their matriculation.
When courses required in older Catalogs/Bulletins are no longer offered, or in other special cases, course substitutions may be made with the approval of appropriate department chairs, departmental advisers or deans.
Changes in regulations concerning grading systems, withdrawals, academic actions, attendance at other institutions, etc., may be made by appropriate University governing bodies; they become effective on the date specified in the legislation. The University reserves the right at any time to make changes deemed necessary in the regulations, fees, courses or programs described in the Catalog/Bulletin and to cancel any course if registration does not justify its continuance or if qualified faculty members become unavailable.
To receive a degree, students in Decker School of Nursing or School of Management must take at least seven and one-half courses (30 credits) while in residence at their school. These seven and one-half courses must be the last seven and one-half courses toward the degree, unless students petition the appropriate academic advising office and obtain in advance an exception to this rule. Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science students must also take at least 30 credits in residence, all of which must be within Watson School. Students in School of Education and Human Development must take at least 36 credits while in residence at the school. These credits do not have to be the last 36 credits toward the degree. Students in Harpur College must meet residence requirements outlined in the Harpur College “Undergraduate Information” section of this document.
Classification of Students
A student must pass a minimum of 24 credits to be classified a sophomore; 57 credits to be classified a junior; and 88 credits to be classified a senior. For this purpose, Incompletes are counted as credits passed.
The term “full-time student” is applied to a person carrying 12 or more credits, excluding audited courses. Full-time students attending Harpur College of Arts and Sciences, Decker School of Nursing, School of Education and Human Development or School of Management normally enroll in four courses each semester. Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science students are considered full time if they register for 12 or more credits each semester. All courses, except where indicated in the Catalog and Bulletin, carry four credits. Outside reading and study are required to complete classroom assignments. Students are also expected to meet several times each semester with the instructor to obtain supervision and periodic evaluation of work done outside of regularly scheduled classes.
There is no rigid pattern of class meetings. In such courses as beginning languages and sciences, a course may have classes and laboratory sessions five or six hours a week. Other courses may meet three or four hours a week. Four-credit courses that meet less than four hours per week require one or two hours per week of independent or tutorial work under the guidance of the faculty, or other additional course-related activities. As noted above, however, time spent in the classroom is only a part of the student’s workload. In general a “course” represents the pursuit of a skill or a body of knowledge that engages approximately 25 percent of the formal academic effort of a full-time student during the semester.
Undergraduate students are allowed to register for no more than 18 credit hours (not including physical education courses), unless they have filed an academic petition form for an overload. Petitions to register for an overload are considered on an individual basis when submitted to the appropriate academic advising office.
Transfer of Credits
Once students are matriculated at Binghamton University, they may obtain credit toward graduation for courses taken at other institutions. Harpur College students wishing to have these courses count toward their major and all students in Decker School of Nursing, School of Education and Human Development, School of Management or Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science should submit a Petition to Take Courses at Another Institution. This petition form should be submitted by the students for approval by the department or school in which they are enrolled or to the academic advising office of the school before the courses are taken.
Transferred credits are adjusted when the credit system at the other institution is different; e.g. credits taken under a quarter system, rather than a semester system, are transferred to Binghamton at two-thirds of their quarter-credit value. In general, credits may be transferred only if they were earned for courses that are essentially theoretical rather than practical in nature (e.g. not practice teaching or typing courses), and if the student received a grade of C– or better, or the equivalent (C or better for students in School of Management).
These guidelines apply to courses taken at other institutions during the summer, correspondence courses, online courses, study-abroad courses sponsored by other units of the State University of New York, and courses taken through the National Student Exchange Program (which involves a semester or a year of study at one of many participating schools).
Students participating in study-abroad programs sponsored by American universities not a part of the State University of New York system, as well as students studying for a time at a foreign university, should first obtain approval from their academic advising office. Upon completion of the semester abroad, the student should request a transcript or official grade statement be sent to the appropriate academic advising office at Binghamton.
Progress Toward Degree (DARS)
All undergraduate students at the University are encouraged to request a Progress Toward Degree report through the online Degree Audit Reporting System (DARS). This report is available on the BUSI (Binghamton University Student Information) Web Center (busi.binghamton.edu). The report shows students what program requirements have been completed and what requirements are remaining for their degrees. If students have questions regarding the Progress Toward Degree report, they should consult with a professional adviser in their college or school or with their major departmental adviser.
Double Degree Program
A student may earn two degrees in very different fields by completing a significant amount of work (typically 30 credits) beyond that required for one degree and satisfying requirements for both programs. Harpur College offers combined programs of study with Decker School of Nursing, School of Education and Human Development, School of Management and certain programs in the Watson School. To learn more about requirements and application procedures, contact the academic advising office of the college or school in which you are enrolled.
The Schedule of Classes, available online at busi.binghamton.edu, is the final list of courses for each semester. This schedule includes course meeting days and times, instructors, number of credits, General Education indicators, special notes, course descriptions and prerequisite/corequisite listings.
Course Numbering And Prerequisites
All Binghamton University undergraduate schools use a course numbering system from 100 through 499. While each school may define the tiers more specifically, all schools define 100-299 as lower division and 300-499 as upper division.
Harpur College Numbering System
100-199 Introductory courses, normally with no prerequisites, open to all students.
200-299 Intermediate courses, with or without prerequisites.
300-399 Intermediate courses, normally with prerequisites.
400-499 Advanced courses with specific course prerequisites.
Professional Schools’ Numbering System
100-199 Lower-division introductory courses, no prerequisites, open to all students.
200-299 Lower-division intermediate courses, with or without prerequisites.
300-399 Upper-division intermediate courses, intended primarily for juniors and seniors, with prerequisites (courses, class standing or special permission).
400-499 Upper-division advanced courses, intended for seniors, with specific course prerequisites.
Within these levels, certain numbers are set aside to indicate particular learning experiences: 91 indicates a teaching practicum course; 95, an internship; 97, an independent study; 98 and 99, honors or thesis work.
Program planning must include the early identification of and registration for prerequisites to courses that the student intends to take at a later time. When there are special reasons, students may register for a course without having completed the prerequisites, provided they first obtain the consent of the course instructor.
Binghamton University Student Information (BUSI) System
All students at Binghamton University have access to an online information service through the Binghamton University Student Information (BUSI) system. Stu-dents may access BUSI on the Web at busi.binghamton.edu from their residence halls or home computers or in the on-campus public computing areas. Through BUSI, students may register for classes, change grading options, check their course schedules to verify registration, view their final examination schedules, check their grades, check for any financial obligations to the University and make payment, review their financial aid status and manage their computer accounts.
Registration and Changes in Program
Students at Binghamton University register for classes themselves using the online registration system and are responsible for checking the accuracy of their registration.
Currently enrolled students may access the BUSI system to register for courses during the mid-portion of the semester prior to classes starting. Students are assigned registration start times based on the number of credits they have earned. The registration start times are available online at registrar.binghamton.edu (click on “Registration”). New students may register for classes during Orientation.
There is also a brief registration period just prior to the start of classes. Only eligible students may register for classes, and all student registration activity is done by students using the BUSI system.
Students cannot be registered if they have outstanding debts with the University. Students are not officially registered until all tuition and fees are paid or arrangements for such payments have been approved by the Student Accounts Office. Students who have not made financial arrangements with the Student Accounts Office by the first day of classes are subject to a late registration fee.
Binghamton University also conducts an add/drop period during each semester. Students may add a course to their schedule until the add deadline, which is midnight on Sunday immediately preceding the third week of classes. Students may drop a course without having a grade recorded until the drop deadline, which is midnight on Friday of the second week of classes. A course-withdrawal period extends from the drop deadline until the announced course withdraw deadline (around the ninth week of classes). Students who drop courses during this period receive a grade of W. The course-withdraw deadline is also the deadline for changing grading options for individual courses. These policies apply to courses offered on a full-term basis. Deadlines for courses offered for a half-semester or less are adjusted accordingly.
All course adds or drops after the deadline dates require academic approval of the student’s academic advising office and an associated late fee. Such late requests should be made on the Late Add/Drop Petition Form obtained from the academic advising office. (For Harpur College, petition forms are available on the Web at harpur-advising.binghamton.edu.) Students must cite extraordinary circumstances to justify a late drop, that is, circumstances beyond their control and beyond their ability to foresee. Poor judgment or academic incompetence do not qualify as extraordinary circumstances.
At the end of each semester, students may access their grades by telephone (607-777-5000) or through the BUSI system at busi.binghamton.edu. For a discussion of the grading system used in each undergraduate college and school, see the college and school sections in this publication. Under appropriate circumstances, students may take undergraduate courses in any of the schools at Binghamton University. Courses are usually graded according to the offering college or school’s grading system; e.g. a course offered by the School of Management is graded using that school’s system, and a Harpur College course is graded according to the Harpur system. However, if students petition the instructor for an exception, they may be graded according to the system in use at their home college or school. (Thus, a student majoring in Harpur College who takes a School of Management course must petition the instructor and the Harpur Academic Advising Office in order to be graded according to the Harpur College system.) Petitions should be submitted by the deadline for change-of-grading option. Students should realize that not only do grading systems differ from school to school, but the various schools also have their own policies on taking courses in the other Binghamton University schools and on petitioning for grading options. These grading systems are described in this publication in the introductory section of each school. Students wishing to register a complaint about alleged unfair grading procedures should speak with the instructor or the appropriate department chair.
Notation of Incomplete
A notation of Incomplete, rather than a grade, may be reported by the instructor when a student has not been able to complete a course for what, in the instructor’s judgment, is a compelling reason. The submission of an Incomplete means that a student has made a substantial commitment to the course, but some remainder of the work must still be accomplished before an evaluation may be made.
Students must determine with the instructor what work is necessary for completion of the course and when the work must be submitted.
Ordinarily, all Incomplete notations must be replaced with grades by the end of the next semester, whether or not the student is in college. Incomplete notations change to an F grade at the end of the next semester unless an official extension has been filed with the Registrar’s Office. It is the student’s responsibility to initiate a request for an extension, having reached agreement with the instructor for an alternate completion date. The appropriate form, Request for Extension of Incomplete Grade in an Undergraduate Course, may be obtained from the academic advising office of the college or school in which the student is enrolled, or from the Registrar’s Office.
Credit by Examination
Credit for knowledge gained outside the classroom may be obtained through New York State Education Department (Regents College Examination Program, or RCEP) tests and through subject-based College Entrance Examination Board (College-Level Examination Program, or CLEP) examinations. Credit earned through Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, U.S. Armed Forces Institute/Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Education Services (USAF/DANTES), examination credit from other institutions and through correspondence may also apply to degree credit. Up to 32 external examination credits may be accepted; however, each undergraduate school within the University determines the number and kind of credit that counts toward its degree.
Acceptance of these examinations for major credit is governed by school and/or departmental policy. (See the section titled “Academic Credit” for a discussion of these exams and of International Baccalaureate credit.)
Rules Governing Academic Life
The faculty assumes that themes, term papers, studio work, results of laboratory experiments, examinations and computer-generated material submitted by the student represent the student’s own work. The presentation for academic credit of the same work in more than one course is prohibited, unless a joint project receives the express and prior consent of the instructors involved. The following remarks are intended to clarify this for all students:
Cooperation in Preparing Course Material
Cooperative study of coursework is one of the legitimate ways to master a subject. Joint discussion of problems is, therefore, encouraged. Sometimes instructors encourage collaborative methods of learning, including peer review of papers. This too can be a productive way of mastering material and promoting one’s writing abilities. Students should be aware that wherever such learning results in an instructor’s evaluation, they are responsible for acknowledging their membership in the group fostering their learning.
Much coursework is assigned to students individually rather than in groups. In carrying out such assignments, a student may ask others for criticism of a piece of writing. Effective learning is often fostered by cooperation and assistance. Nonetheless, such assistance should never be so complete or so detailed that the piece of writing becomes more the work of the person assisting than of the student. That would be a form of misrepresentation. Similarly, a student may occasionally feel the need for preliminary aid in understanding the principles involved in various problems and the methods to be used in solving them (for example, in mathematics and foreign language courses). Such aid is legitimate, but in every case the student must be responsible for the preparation and presentation of assignments. Without these precautions, the student may unwittingly become involved in collaborative work so extensive that it may be considered plagiarism.
Although students may be permitted or required to cooperate with one or more other students in a laboratory experiment, many experiments are to be done by the students independently, and all require some independent work. For students to submit the results of another’s experiment as their own, or to accept unauthorized help in an experiment, constitutes academic dishonesty.
All sources of assistance — published or unpublished — are to be scrupulously acknowledged in every piece of writing and in oral reports.
Academic Progress and Standing
To remain in good academic standing, students must demonstrate that they are passing courses at a satisfactory rate to earn a bachelor’s degree in a reasonable period of time; that is, they are required to show a reasonable rate of progress toward their degree. Students in all schools must maintain a satisfactory grade-point average. Academic progress is reviewed at the end of the fall and spring semesters. If students fail to maintain satisfactory academic standing, they are subject to dismissal. For detailed discussion of how academic standing is computed in the various undergraduate schools, see the individual school sections in this publication.
Grade-point averages are computed for students in all the University’s undergraduate schools.
For the purpose of computing semester or cumulative averages, each letter grade is assigned a quality point value as follows:
A = 4.0 C+ = 2.3
A– = 3.7 C = 2.0
B+ = 3.3 C– = 1.7
B = 3.0 D = 1.0
B– = 2.7 F = 0.0
These grade values are combined with course credit hours to produce a grade-point average.
Students may not gain additional credit by repeating an undergraduate course in which they received a passing grade, except where this option is specified in the course description. Harpur College students should see the school section.
Academic Probation and Dismissal
The academic standards committee of each school determines policies by which students are placed on academic probation when academic performance, as reflected in the grade-point average, raises doubts about the students’ capability to complete requirements for the bachelor’s degree. Academic probation does not imply either suspension or dismissal, and does not preclude the students’ registering or receiving financial aid. Academic probation ordinarily entails a contract with the student to complete a specified amount of coursework in a specified period of time at a specified level of performance. Students are subject to academic dismissal from the University at any time their record warrants. Students dismissed for academic reasons may apply for readmission by following the procedures outlined in “General Readmission Policies” below. The students must also explain in writing any extenuating circumstances that contributed to the poor record. If readmitted, their continued enrollment is subject to the academic standing requirements of the school. Students dropped from a Binghamton University school may not be readmitted to another Binghamton school without the approval of the deans of both schools. Confidentiality of student records is maintained in accordance with the Family Education Right and Privacy Act of 1974. (See Rules of Student Conduct.)
Dropping a Course or Withdrawing from a Semester
Students who wish their records to indicate good standing when dropping a course or withdrawing from a semester must follow formal drop and withdrawal procedures. Mere absence from class does not constitute due notice of drop or withdrawal. Students are advised to check the school sections in this publication for additional discussion of the regulations.
In general, undergraduates may drop a courseup to the published drop deadline. Such a course will not appear on the academic record. After the drop deadline, and until the course withdraw deadline, students may drop a course and receive a grade of W. After the published course-withdraw deadline, students must have the consent of the instructor and the appropriate academic advising office on an approved Late Drop Petition Form to drop the course. Students must cite extraordinary circumstances to justify a late drop, that is, circumstances beyond their control and beyond their ability to foresee. Poor judgment or academic incompetence do not qualify as extraordinary circumstances. The Late Drop Petition Form may be obtained from the academic advising office of the college or school in which the student is enrolled. (For Harpur College students, petitions are available on the Web at harpur-advising.binghamton.edu.)
If the petition is approved, the student must pay a late drop fee to have the late drop processed.
Students wishing to drop all of their courses in a given semester must complete a Semester Withdrawal Form, available in the Registrar’s Office, and return it to the Office of Student Accounts. Students may officially withdraw from a semester up to the last day of classes for the semester. Such an action is noted on their records as an Official Withdrawal and, in place of a regular grade, the courses have the appropriate school mark for withdrawal. Students who drop all courses without having completed an official withdrawal form are considered unofficially withdrawn and have such a notation posted on the academic record.
Involuntary Medical or Psychological Withdrawal of Students
Students may be involuntarily withdrawn from the University based on the recommendation of the medical director of the University Health Service or the director of the University Counseling Center without academic penalty; that is, they may continue as students in good academic standing and are eligible to return upon clearance by the associate vice president and dean of students. Efforts are made to preserve a student’s academic progress with Incompletes and/or withdrawals through consultation with faculty. If there are irreconcilable disagreements in these discussions, the provost will make the final decision(s) about the disposition of the student’s academic records.
Recommendations for involuntary withdrawals are submitted to the associate vice president and dean of students for appropriate action. Students are sent written notification of the intended action. Appeals may be made in writing to the vice president for student affairs within 10 business days. See the Financial Aid section for refund policies.
Students who are involuntarily withdrawn from the University for medical or psychological reasons are not readmitted without a recommendation from either the medical director of the University Health Service or the director of the University Counseling Center.
Students on voluntary or involuntary medical or psychological leave who are otherwise eligible to continue with their studies may request a letter to this effect from the associate vice president and dean of students. Health insurance companies may require this type of letter for continuing health insurance benefits for a student covered by the policy of a parent or guardian.
General Readmission Policies
Candidates matriculated for undergraduate degrees who interrupt their education at Binghamton University and later wish to return must be formally readmitted. One exception is for students who withdraw from all classes during a major (spring or fall, not summer) semester: These students are eligible to return and pre-register for the following semester. If they do not pre-register, they will need to be readmitted in order to complete registration. Students who leave after the end of a semester in which any courses were completed must file for readmission, using the readmission forms available from the Admissions Office. Students must complete and file the readmission form no later than two weeks before the start of classes for the term in which they plan to return.
Continuing education (non-matriculated) students may interrupt their studies for as long as two major (fall or spring) semesters without having to file for formal readmission. After two semesters have elapsed without enrollment, a readmission form must be completed no later than two weeks prior to the start of classes for the desired semester.
Note: All students enrolled in the Educational Opportunity Program (EOP) at the time studies were interrupted must receive clearance from the director of EOP in order to resume their studies.
Students dismissed for academic or other reasons should contact their college or school’s academic advising office or the Admissions Office for any conditions to be satisfied before readmission is approved.
All Decker School of Nursing students must file for readmission and have an interview at the school before re-enrolling. Further details may be found in the Decker School of Nursing readmission section in this publication.
Depending on the demand for on-campus housing, a space in one of the residence halls may not be available for readmitted students. First priority is given to readmitted students who have left the University due to health reasons or to participate in a study-abroad program. Students may contact the Office of Residential Life to obtain more information.
Those who require financial aid should notify the Student Financial Aid and Employment Office by April 15 for the fall semester and by Nov. 15 for the spring semester. After the indicated dates, there can be no guarantee of financial aid unless specifically authorized by the appropriate office.
For off-campus housing information, readmitted students may view the Off Campus College (OCC) website at occ.binghamton.edu. The site includes the OCC Housing List and an Apartment Complex Listing, which advertise available rental units in the community surrounding the University. Also included is a Housemate/Subletter Listing, which includes information from current off-campus students seeking to fill a vacancy in their rental units. For additional information about off-campus housing, contact OCC at 607-777-2768 or via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Complete academic records of students are maintained by the Registrar’s Office. An official transcript is a student’s complete listing of all coursework taken at the University. Students may obtain copies of their transcripts, or request that the University send them directly to other institutions, provided the students are in good financial standing (free of outstanding debts) with the University. For a transcript to be considered official, it must be sent to a third party; those transcripts sent directly to students will be in a sealed envelope that carries the notation “issued to student; unofficial if opened.”
Requests for official transcripts may be sent by mail to the Registrar’s Office, Binghamton University, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, New York 13902-6000 or by fax to 607-777-6515. In addition, students may visit the Registrar’s Office to make a request in person. Telephone and e-mail requests cannot be accepted. All requests for transcripts must include the student’s name, ID number, daytime telephone number, dates of attendance, number of transcripts being requested, destination address(es) and the signature of the student. A transcript request form is available for printing at the following Web address: registrar.binghamton.edu/transcript.html.
There is no charge to have an official transcript sent unless special handling is requested. There is a $15 charge to have a transcript faxed with a follow-up mailing of an official version.
Certification of Degrees
Undergraduates should file an Application for Degree form with the Registrar’s Office by the add deadline of the semester prior to graduation. Forms are available in the Registrar’s Office or at the following Web address: registrar.binghamton.edu/graduation.html.
Any undergraduate student who files an Application For Degree form should also request a Progress Toward Degree report online through the Degree Audit Reporting System (DARS). This is available at the BUSI (Binghamton University Student Information) Web Center (busi.binghamton.edu). The report shows which program requirements have been completed and which, if any, requirements are remaining for their degrees. If students have questions regarding the Progress Toward Degree report, they should consult with a professional adviser in their college or school or with their major departmental adviser.
Graduate students should file a Declaration of Candidacy Form with the Graduate School. The form is available on the Web at gradschool.binghamton.edu/ candidacy.htm. Students should complete the form in the semester in which they expect to receive a graduate degree.
Information Applicable to All Students
Student Academic Honesty Code
Actions Outside the Boundaries of Academic Honesty and Integrity
No set of written guidelines can anticipate all types and degrees of violations of academic honesty. To the extent that the examples below are not exhaustive, duly appointed representatives of the University will judge each case according to its merits. They will be guided by the principle that academic dishonesty involves misappropriation of academic or intellectual credit to oneself or to the discredit of others. Instances of such dishonesty include:
Presenting the work of another person as one’s own work (including papers, words, ideas, information, computer code, data, evidence-organizing principles, or style of presentation of someone else taken from the Internet, books, periodicals or other sources). Plagiarism includes:
• quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing without acknowledgement, even a few phrases;
• failing to acknowledge the source of either a major idea or ordering principle central to one’s own paper;
• relying on another person’s data, evidence or critical method without credit or permission;
• submitting another person’s work as one’s own;
• using unacknowledged research sources gathered by someone else.
Cheating on Examinations
Giving or receiving unauthorized help before, during or after an examination. Examples include:
• unauthorized collaboration of any sort during an examination;
• reading of an examination before it has been given;
• unauthorized use of notes, books, tapes, computers or other aids during an examination;
• allowing another person to take an examination in one’s place;
• looking at someone else’s examination during the examination period;
• allowing another person to use one’s own examination during the examination period;
• passing examination information to students who have not yet taken the examination.
Submitting substantial portions of the same work for credit more than once, unless there is prior explicit consent of the instructor(s) to whom the material is being or has been submitted.
Collaboration on projects, papers, computer programs or other academic assignments that has been prohibited by the instructor.
Fabrication and Misrepresentation
Misrepresenting or fabricating material, including misleading citation of sources as well as falsified or fabricated data or results from experiments or other analyses. Misrepresenting facts related to academic performance, including the justification of absences, late assignments and other activities.
Imitating another person’s signature on academic documents (for example, an academic advising form or one’s own paper that is signed with respect to the time of submission) or other official documents that have an effect on academic credit (for example, a medical form submitted in support of taking a make-up examination).
Deliberately impairing, destroying, damaging or stealing another’s work or working material. Examples include destroying, stealing or damaging another’s laboratory experiment, computer program, term paper, examination or project; removing uncharged library materials with the effect that others cannot use them; defacing or damaging library materials with the effect that others cannot use them; hoarding or displacing materials within the library with the effect that others have undue difficulty using them; interfering with the operation of a computer system so it has an adverse effect on the academic performance of others.
Offering or receiving any service or article with the purpose or effect of receiving a grade or other academic benefit that was not earned on the merits of the academic work.
Responsibility for Implementation
Each school of Binghamton University, including the Graduate School and the Division of Health and Physical Education, will implement the Student Academic Honesty Code and adjudicate all matters related thereto (except as noted below) through its own committee structure. All reports of findings of guilt (either by admission or by adjudication) will be reported to the Provost’s Office for archival purposes. For cases involving graduate students in the four professional schools, initial implementation shall occur in those schools. For graduate cases in Harpur College of Arts and Sciences and in the Public Administration Program, initial implementation shall occur in the cognizant department or program.
Publication and Dissemination of the Code
Students will receive copies of the code during Orientation, when they will discuss its importance and its meaning. They will acknowledge the code and their intent to abide by its terms each semester when they log onto the registration system. Faculty will ensure enforcement of the code.
Interpretation of the Code
Violations of the code vary in severity, so that the appropriate punishments vary. Some violations (Category I) may be handled by the instructor and student(s) involved. However, violations requiring more severe penalties (Category II) are appropriately dealt with by the Academic Honesty Committee of the relevant school in accordance with procedures laid out in the Rules of Student Conduct. Category I violations are serious but may be dealt with by the instructor. Category II violations may result in letters of reprimand, probation, suspension or expulsion from the University. Behavior explicitly permitted in a course syllabus or explicitly permitted by the instructor for a specific assignment is not a violation of the code.
This may be either a Category I or Category II violation, depending on the amount of material that is plagiarized and the degree of premeditation. A Category I violation involves small amounts of plagiarized material — for example, a single passage or a relatively minor idea. Category II violations occur when more material is plagiarized or where central ideas are plagiarized. Category II violations may involve more planning and premeditation.
Cheating on Examinations
This may be either a Category I or Category II violation, depending on the level or amount of unauthorized help given or received on the examination and the degree of premeditation. Category I includes looking at another’s examination or collaborating on a small portion of the examination. Category II violations involve cheating on most or all of an entire examination — for example, providing a copy of an examination to another student or allowing another student to take an examination in one’s place. Category II violations may involve more planning and premeditation.
This is a Category I violation.
This is a Category I violation, unless it also involves Category II offenses.
Fabrication and Misrepresentation
This can be a Category I or II violation.
This is a Category II violation.
This is a Category II violation.
This is a Category II violation.
Note that misconduct involving forgery, sabotage and bribery refers only to such offenses when committed for an academic purpose as defined in the Student Academic Honesty Code; any violations involving other aspects of student life or subject to federal, state and/or local law are dealt with through the University judicial system.
Each school should develop its own procedures, consistent with these guidelines. These procedures may vary, depending on the size of the school and other relevant factors. The appropriate procedures for addressing the two categories of violations are as follows.
Category I Violations
If an instructor discovers one of these violations, the instructor should first communicate with the student regarding the nature of the charge and the evidence on which the instructor has relied in reaching the conclusion that a violation has occurred. The student should be given the opportunity to respond. If the instructor remains convinced by the preponderance of evidence that a violation has occurred, the instructor may check to see if there is a record of a previous violation by the student. Students who are accused of a second Category I offense will be treated as being charged with a Category II offense and referred to the committee of the school in which the offense occurred.
If there is no previous violation, the faculty member should impose the appropriate penalty. The instructor should then fill in a Report of Academic Dishonesty Form describing the violation that occurred and the evidence supporting that finding. The form will also explain to the student the procedures whereby the student may appeal the decision. The student will then be asked to read and sign the form and will be provided with a copy. If the student chooses not to sign the form, the case goes to a hearing before the committee of the school in which the offense occurred. The instructor will then forward the Report of Academic Dishonesty Form along with the supporting evidence to the chair of the appropriate committee, who will send a copy to the Provost’s Office, where it will be kept on file.
Category II Violations
If an instructor discovers a Category II violation, the instructor should first communicate with the student regarding the nature of the charge and the evidence on which the instructor has relied in reaching the conclusion that a violation has occurred. If the instructor remains convinced that a Category II violation has occurred, he or she should submit a detailed written charge with supporting evidence to the honesty committee of the school in which the offense occurred. The student will be notified of the charge and the date of the hearing and will receive a copy of the committee procedures. The instructor should assign an Incomplete grade for the student’s work, pending the outcome of the hearing. If, after the hearing, the committee concludes that the charges were unproven, the faculty member should re-evaluate the student’s work in light of that finding. In determination of any penalty for Category II violations, committees will consider all relevant factors, including the nature of the violation and any previous violations that may have been committed by the student. The chair of the appropriate committee will report any guilty findings to the Provost’s Office, where they will be kept on file.
Academic Grievance Procedures
If a student has a complaint about a grade or other academic grievance, the first step is to talk to the instructor involved. If the matter is not settled satisfactorily, the student should contact the department chair or division director about the complaint and submit the complaint through the formal grievance procedure established by the department. The department decision may, if the student still feels aggrieved, be appealed to the appropriate dean.
Students should be aware that copyright laws cover photocopying and other reproductions of materials. Students should contact faculty members or library staff for information regarding these laws.
Any instructor may exclude from attendance any student who, in the instructor’s judgment, has seriously impaired the class’s ability to achieve the objectives of the course.
The student may appeal the instructor’s action to the department or school via the department’s grievance procedure. If the student is not satisfied with the ruling or recommendation emerging from the grievance hearings, an appeal may be brought to the appropriate dean.
Attendance in Classes
Students are expected to attend all scheduled classes, laboratories and discussions. Instructors may establish their own attendance criteria for a course. They may establish both the number of absences permitted to receive credit for the course and the number of absences after which the final grade may be adjusted downward. In such cases it is expected that the instructor stipulate such requirements in the syllabus and that the syllabus be made available to students at or near the beginning of classes. In the absence of such statements, instructors have the right to deny a student the privilege of taking the final examination or of receiving credit for the course, or may prescribe other academic penalties if the student misses more than 25 percent of the total class sessions. Excessive tardiness may count as absence.
Policy on Responsible Conduct of Research
The Public Health Service and National Science Foundation require recipients of grants to develop policies on scientific misconduct and adopt procedures to both uncover acts of research fraud and examine allegations of misconduct in the conduct of research. On the advice of the Graduate Council and its Advisory Committee for Scholarship and Research, the University has adopted the following policies regarding the responsible conduct of research in all fields throughout the University.
Research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, conducting or reporting research and creative scholarly activity. It does not include honest error or honest differences in interpretations or judgments of data.
The University has established a procedure to review reports of research misconduct. The principles associated with Binghamton’s policy and procedure are as follow:
• The University shall treat all parties with justice and fairness and shall be sensitive to each person’s reputation and responsibilities.
• Procedures shall preserve the highest attainable degree of confidentiality compatible with an effective investigation response.
• Procedures shall be as expeditious as possible in leading to the resolution of the charges in a timely manner.
• The integrity of the process shall be maintained by carefully avoiding any real or apparent conflict of interest.
The vice president for research (VPR) has primary responsibility for overseeing research integrity, and shall appoint a research standards officer (RSO), who will be primarily responsible for the correct observance of the procedures set forth below. The RSO will normally be the operations manager of the Research Foundation at Binghamton.
Reports of misconduct shall be handled in a four-stage process:
• an inquiry to determine whether the allegation or related issue warrants further investigation;
• when warranted, an investigation to collect and examine all pertinent evidence;
• a formal finding on the allegation; and
• appropriate administrative action on the matter.
a. The contact person for allegations of research misconduct is the research standards officer. The RSO shall be responsible for securing and maintaining written records for all allegations.
b. An inquiry shall be made into any allegation that the initiator (the person making the allegation) provides in writing to the RSO. The purpose of this inquiry is to determine whether a full investigation is warranted. The RSO will notify the respondent (the person about whom the allegation is made) in writing of the allegations (if possible, maintaining the confidentiality of the initiator), and of the respondent’s right to submit a written response to the allegation. The RSO shall submit the allegation along with all evidence that may exist, any written rebuttal from the respondent, and any other pertinent documentation to the Advisory Committee for Scholarship and Research of the Graduate Council for review. The RSO will provide staff support to the committee. The Advisory Committee shall make a written recommendation to the VPR on whether a formal investigation is warranted. This process must be completed within 60 days of the receipt of the initial allegation unless an extension of time is approved by the VPR.
c. Within 10 days of receiving the recommendation, the VPR, after consulting with Legal Affairs and the RSO, shall determine whether to conduct an investigation, to drop the matter or to take some other appropriate action. If the VPR decides not to pursue the matter further, the RSO will seal all files and notify the respondent and the initiator in writing that allegations have been dropped. If the VPR decides to proceed with an investigation, the RSO will notify the respondent and initiator in writing, and the VPR will notify the respondent’s chair, dean and vice president; the RSO will also notify external funding agencies and governmental offices as contractually required.
a. The VPR, within 30 days of the inquiry report, will appoint an investigation panel of persons who have no conflicts of interest with the respondent and have research backgrounds that qualify them to understand the subject matter of the alleged research misconduct. The panel will consist of a minimum of three persons, at least one of whom must be a faculty member. The respondent may challenge any panel member, within 14 days of written notification of panel membership, on the ground that the member does not meet the above criteria.
b. The VPR shall define the subject matter of the investigation in a written charge to the investigation panel. The VPR may change the subject matter during investigation if substantive new material is discovered by the investigation panel; the panel must notify the VPR of such new material.
c. The RSO will convene the first meeting of the investigation panel, and will provide staff assistance to the panel. The panel will select a chair at the first meeting.
d. The panel shall present a written report to the VPR within 90 days of its appointment. This report will contain an explicit finding of fact with respect to each allegation in the investigation charge listing the supporting evidence, and will describe the investigative process used. The report will also state the panel’s conclusions as to whether any of the proven allegations violate research integrity. Investigation will be completed within 120 days or an extension must be justified by the vice president.
e. A copy of the report will be made available by the RSO to the respondent. The respondent may submit written comments within 14 days of receipt of report to the VPR through the RSO.
The VPR will send the report, with any written comments of the respondent, to the president through the vice president for academic affairs, together with the VPR’s recommendations.
a. Where allegations are not substantiated, the University shall take action to clear the reputations of those falsely accused; all files relating to the case will be sealed.
b. When the findings of the investigation substantiate the allegation of misconduct, the president shall initiate appropriate action, depending on the nature of the misconduct and the employment status of the individual involved, and shall notify the sponsor of the action if the research was performed with external support. United University Professions-represented employees may be disciplined according to Article 19 of the agreement with UUP or may be subject to such other action as the president deems appropriate.
c. The research record shall be corrected if fabricated or fraudulent information has been published.
Notification of Other Agencies during Process
1. Criminal Activities: If any criminal activities are discovered or claimed during inquiry or investigation, University Counsel shall be informed.
2. Federal-Sponsored Research: Federal agencies will be kept informed of all inquiries and investigations as required contractually. Specifically:
a. in the early inquiry stage if there is one or more of the following:
• an immediate health hazard;
• need to protect sponsor resources;
• need to protect human or animal subjects;
• need to protect person reporting misconduct.
b. when the VPR recommends an investigation.
c. the findings of the investigation and the institutional sanctions.
Student Research Projects
1. Students who intend to contact private, voluntary or governmental agencies as part of their research in an academic project should first ask the faculty member who assigned the project to secure permission and cooperation from University and agency officials.
2. Students engaged in research, independent study, internships or other courses/projects involving human subjects must be made fully aware of their ethical, legal and moral responsibilities and their potential legal/financial liabilities when participating in such activities. Students planning research and/or course work involving human subjects should consult their faculty adviser for project design and methodology. The University’s Human Subjects Research Review Committee (HSRRC) reviews and must approve all research activities involving human subjects; HSRRC approval must be obtained prior to the initiation of the research. The Division of Research staff provides the appropriate review forms and guidance to initiate the human-subjects research review process.
3. Students planning research and/or coursework involving live vertebrate animals should consult their faculty adviser for project design and methodology. In addition, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) must first review and approve such projects to ensure compliance with University, state and federal regulations regarding the humane care and treatment of vertebrate animals. For appropriate review forms and guidance, contact the coordinator for animal care at 607-777-6136.
4. Students planning projects involving the use of recombinant DNA molecules must consult with their faculty adviser for proper project protocol. The Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) oversees all research on campus involving the use of recombinant DNA molecules in order to ensure compliance with both University and federal regulations. IBC approval must be obtained prior to the initiation of any research involving the use of recombinant DNA molecules. Further information and guidelines are available from the Division of Research at 607-777-6136.
5. Students planning research projects involving the use of radioactive materials must consult with their faculty adviser for proper project protocol. The Radioactive Safety Committee oversees all research on campus involving the use of radioactive materials. For further information, contact the radiation safety officer at 607-777-4370.
Unlawful Sale of Dissertations, Theses and Term Papers
The following is a reproduction of section (213b) of the Education Law of New York State, concerning the illegal sale of term papers, theses or dissertations:
1. No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer for sale to any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to believe is intended for submission as a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment by a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution.
2. Nothing herein contained shall prevent such educational institution or any member of its faculty or staff from offering courses, instruction, counseling or tutoring for research or writing as part of a curriculum or other program conducted by such educational institution. Nor shall this section prevent any educational institution or any member of its faculty or staff from authorizing students to use statistical, computer or any other services which may be required or permitted by such educational institution in the preparation, research or writing of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment. Nor shall this section prevent tutorial assistance rendered by other persons which does not include the preparation, research or writing of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment intended for submission to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study. Nor shall any person be prevented by the provisions of this section from rendering services for a fee, which shall be limited to the typing, transcription or reproduction of a manuscript.
3. Nothing contained within this section shall prevent any person from selling or offering for sale a publication or other written material which shall have been registered under the United States laws of copyright, provided, however, that the owner of such copyright shall have given his authorization or approval for such sale, and provided further that such publication or other written material shall not be intended for submission as a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment to such educational institution within the state of New York in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study.
4. No person shall sell, assign or otherwise transfer for business or for any other purpose to any person any information and material of a personal or private nature acquired from a purchaser of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment without the prior consent of such purchaser. The term “information and material of a personal or private nature” as used in this subdivision shall include, but not be limited to, the name of such purchaser, his address and telephone number, the name of such educational institution, the name or number of the course, the name of the faculty member or members for whom such written assignment has been prepared, and any description of the research involved or the nature of such written assignment.
5. A violation of the provisions of this section shall constitute a class B misdemeanor.
6. The attorney general and district at-torney of the county wherein a violation of this section occurs shall have concurrent authority to investigate and prosecute any violation of this section and any related violations discovered during the course of such investigation.
7. Whenever there shall be a violation of this section, an application also may be made by the attorney general in the name of the people of the state of New York to a court or justice having jurisdiction to issue an injunction and, upon notice to the defendant of not less than five days, to enjoin and restrain the continuance of such violation; and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court or justice that the defendant has, in fact, violated this section, an injunction may be issued by such court or justice, enjoining and restraining any further violation, without requiring proof that any person has, in fact, been injured or damaged thereby. In any such proceeding the court may make allowances to the attorney general as provided in section 8303, subdivision six of the civil practice law and rules. In connection with any such proposed application, the attorney general is authorized to take proof and make a determination of the relevant facts and to issue subpoenas in accordance with the civil practice law and rules. Additionally, the attorney general may apply in any such proceeding for a monetary penalty of not more than $1,000 per violation.
Student Absences for Religious Beliefs
In accordance with New York State Education Law 224-a, student absences may be excused as follows:
- No person shall be expelled from or be refused admission as a student to an institution of higher education for reason that he or she is unable, because of his or her religious beliefs, to register or attend classes or to participate in any examination, study or work requirements on a particular day or days.
- Any student in an institution of higher education who is unable, because of his or her religious beliefs, to attend classes on a particular day or days shall, because of such absence on the particular day or days, be excused from any examination or any study or work requirement.
- It shall be the responsibility of the faculty and of the administration officials of each institution of higher education to make available to each student who is absent from school because of his or her religious beliefs, an equivalent opportunity to register for classes or make up any examination, study or work requirements that he or she may have missed because of such absences on any particular day or days. No fees of any kind shall be charged by the institution for making available to the said student such equivalent opportunity.
- If registration, classes, examinations, study or work requirements are held on Fridays after 4 p.m. or on Saturdays, similar or makeup classes, examinations, study or work requirements, or opportunity to register shall be made available on other days where it is possible and practicable to do so. No special fees shall be charged to the student for these classes, examinations, study or work requirements, or registration held on other days.
- In effectuating the provisions of this section, it shall be the duty of the faculty and of the administrative officials of each institution of higher education to exercise the fullest measure of good faith. No adverse or prejudicial effects shall result to any student because of his or her availing himself or herself of the provisions of this section.
- Any student who is aggrieved by the alleged failure of any faculty or administrative officials to comply in good faith with the provisions of this section, shall be entitled to maintain an action or proceeding in the supreme court of the county in which such institution of higher education is located for the enforcement of his or her rights under this section.